Drug-eluting balloon (DEB) is a medical device used to treat atherosclerotic disease, particularly coronary artery disease. It is a type of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) balloon catheter that delivers a drug to the inner lining of the artery during the procedure.
The drug-eluting balloon is coated with a medication that is released into the arterial wall during the inflation of the balloon. The medication is then absorbed by the tissue and reduces the risk of restenosis (re-narrowing of the artery) by preventing the growth of smooth muscle cells.
The medication used in drug-eluting balloons is usually an antiproliferative drug, such as paclitaxel or sirolimus. These drugs have been shown to be effective in reducing restenosis rates in clinical studies.
Drug-eluting balloons are typically used in cases where a stent is not suitable or not desired, such as in small vessels or in patients who are at high risk for restenosis. They may also be used in conjunction with a stent to reduce the risk of restenosis.
The use of drug-eluting balloons is generally considered safe, with few side effects reported. However, there is some concern about the potential for long-term toxicity from the drug, particularly in patients who require multiple treatments or have underlying health conditions.
In summary, drug-eluting balloons are a relatively new and promising technology in the field of interventional cardiology. They offer a safe and effective alternative to stents in certain situations and may help reduce the risk of restenosis in patients with atherosclerotic disease.