Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a type of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) that develops from B cells. It is typically an aggressive form of NHL, and it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage. MCL can be treated with a variety of different therapies, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, stem cell transplantation, and clinical trials.
Here is a more detailed look at some of the treatment options for MCL:
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is a common treatment for MCL. It involves the use of drugs that kill cancer cells or prevent them from growing. Chemotherapy may be given orally or intravenously (IV). The most common chemotherapy regimens for MCL include R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone), R-bendamustine (rituximab and bendamustine), and hyper-CVAD (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone alternating with methotrexate and cytarabine).
- Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells. It is typically used in combination with chemotherapy for MCL. Radiation therapy may be given externally or internally.
- Targeted therapy: Targeted therapy drugs target specific proteins on cancer cells to stop their growth. In MCL, the most commonly used targeted therapy drugs are ibrutinib and acalabrutinib, which inhibit the B-cell receptor signaling pathway. Another targeted therapy drug, venetoclax, inhibits the BCL-2 protein, which is important for the survival of MCL cells.
- Stem cell transplantation: Stem cell transplantation involves the use of high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to kill cancer cells, followed by the transplantation of healthy stem cells to help rebuild the patient’s immune system. Stem cell transplantation may be autologous (using the patient’s own stem cells) or allogeneic (using stem cells from a donor).
- Clinical trials: Clinical trials are studies that test new treatments or combinations of treatments for MCL. They may involve new chemotherapy drugs, targeted therapy drugs, or immunotherapy drugs.
In addition to these treatments, supportive care is also an important part of managing MCL. This may include medications to manage symptoms such as pain and nausea, as well as counseling and support groups to help patients and their families cope with the emotional impact of the disease.
The choice of treatment for MCL depends on several factors, including the stage of the disease, the patient’s age and overall health, and the patient’s preferences. Treatment plans are typically developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation oncologists, and other specialists.